TÁRKI projects categorised by research area
Income distribution, labour market, povertyReport on Millenium Development Goals
World Bank Poverty Assessment
Report on Millenium Development Goals
Researchers: Márton Medgyesi, Péter Szivós
Report on Millenium Development Goals: Reducing Poverty and Social Exclusion (UNDP, 2003/4)
In 2003/4 a research was undertaken by TARKI Social Research Institute in order to prepare country report for the Hungary, which assess the country’s progress towards meeting the Global Millennium Development Goals. The Hungarian Millenium Development Goals Report has as its main goal to have lasting improving effect on people's lives. Summarising the achievements so far, setting new national goals and targets has helped national authorities, civic organisations, and policy makers to find the most secure path for Hungarian sustainable human development. The report has been influential in reinforcing Government commitment to fulfil the obligations and at the same time has helped to streamline the most efficient policy steps and measures in achieving the targets set.
The MD goals have been commonly accepted as a framework for measuring development progress. The Millennium Development Goals focus the efforts of the world community on achieving significant, measurable improvements in people's lives. They establish yardsticks for measuring results, not only for developing countries. The first seven goals are mutually reinforcing and are directed at reducing poverty in all its forms.
Download / view MDG Report Hungary written Márton Medgyesi, TÁRKI (external link, html and pdf) from UNDP site.
Download Introduction to MDG Report titled: "Reducing Poverty and Social Exclusion: Hungary, Slovenia, Slovak Republic, Czech Republic" /authors: András Blaho, Ben Slay, Susanne Milcher, Andrey Ivanov, Dan Hanspach) (external link, pdf, 9 pages)
Visit MDG website (external link, html).
Researchers: András Gábos, Márton Medgyesi, István György Tóth, Péter Szivós, Anikó Bernát, Tamás Keller
European Observatory on the Social Situation - Network on Social Inclusion and Income Distribution (EC, DG EMPL, VC/2004/0462, 19 May 2005, and VC/2005/0780, 31/10/2006-31/10/2008)
TÁRKI is a member of a consortium that monitors and reports on trends in income distribution and social inclusion - i.e. on the overall inclusiveness of European society. It monitors the situation regarding income and wealth, the impact of the tax-benefit system, access to services, questions related to poverty, and population groups particularly at risk of exclusion. This involves examining the relationship between income and living standards and the extent to which the former, as usually defined and measured, determines the latter, and, accordingly, how far households and the people living in them are able to participate fully in society and avoid deprivation and exclusion. It also involves consideration of other factors that influence living standards and involvement in society, particularly the tax and benefit system in place in different countries, and other measures implemented by governments to provide social support, as well as access to employment, decent housing and so on. The report was produced for the EC Directorate-General for Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunity in 2005-6. The work was co-ordinated by Applica (Belgium).
The key findings on Hungary were: 'Moreover, while, according to the [European Community Household Panel], there was a modest decline in the proportion of children with income below the poverty line in the EU15 as a whole between 1995 and 2001, the proportion appears to have increased in the few new Member States for which data are available (Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic). In the EU15 generally, the increased age at which people tend to have children and, therefore, their higher level of income, seems to have moderated the risk of child poverty as well as a generally declining rates of unemployment, though in the UK, increased social transfers to families have been important.
"The number of older people of 65 and over with income below the poverty line varies across the EU by more still, from 4% in the Czech Republic and under 10% in France, Hungary and Poland to 30% in Spain, over 40% in Ireland and over 50% in Cyprus. The risk of poverty in old-age seems, in general, to be less in the new Member States than in the EU15, reflecting perhaps more of those in retirement living in households with people in work as well as relative pension levels. Experience varied over the second half of the 1990s, the poverty rate among the elderly rising in Ireland and Finland and declining in Germany and the UK" (cited from the Executive Summary
Researchers: Márton Medgyesi, Péter Hegedűs
Background studies for the OECD (2003, 2005, 2007)
OECD Analysis of Income Distribution and Poverty
In October 2007, TARKI prepared a research note on income inequality and poverty in the enlarged EU. This research note used the most recent database suitable for international comparative research, the EU Community Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU SILC), year 2005, which was made available for research by the data use contract between Eurostat and TARKI. Analysis of income inequality and poverty was based on the methodology elaborated by OECD.
open research note (pdf)
World Bank Poverty Assessment
Researchers: István György Tóth, Péter Szivós
TÁRKI produced a background study for the 1998 World Bank Poverty Assessment review of Hungary. The paper was part of a project that had three different elements. First, a new release of all the completed waves of the Hungarian Panel Study was prepared and, after it was supplemented by a new, comprehensive weighting system, this was handed over to the World Bank research team as the empirical foundation for their research. Second, a comprehensive overview was drawn up of longitudinal poverty trends in Hungary. That paper covered the most important issues of the dynamics of poverty and inequality in Hungary during the transition years. Third, TÁRKI carried out a cross-sectional survey of incomes and the labour-market position of Hungarian households in 1998. Under the contract, the dataset was released to the WB research team for its poverty assessment study. Data provision and analysis were provided to the Bank on a consultancy basis. The poverty assessment study for the World Bank was completed in 2001. TÁRKI produced background papers for the final report and provided the main source of data, which was Hungarian Household Panel survey. The World Bank team lead by Jeanine Braithwaite worked in close co-operation with our experts, István Tóth, Péter Szivós and Zoltán Fábián. The final report can be downloaded from the World Bank site (pdf) in two volumes.
Title: Hungary Long-Term Poverty, Social Protection, and the Labour Market. Report No. 20645-HU.
Abstract: This report documents the emergence of a group of long-term poor in Hungary. While growth will continue to be necessary to create well-paying jobs that would enable people to escape poverty, the long term poor are not likely to benefit from growth since they are detached from the labor market, socially excluded, and in many cases, facing discrimination which keeps them from reintegrating into the labor market. The long-term poor in Hungary are comprised of several distinct social groups: the homeless, rural population particularly those living in micro-communities, unemployed or withdrawn from the labor market, households with more than three children, single parent families, single elderly females, and the Roma. A third of the long-term poor are of Roma ethnicity, even though this group is only approximately 5 percent of the Hungarian population. The analysis of the labor market confirms the connection between long-term unemployment and long-term poverty. One of the messages of this report is that the Roma need good-paying jobs first and foremost. Many Roma villages are characterized by a cycle of dependency on state transfers. Reinsertion programs are needed to break this cycle. In the medium term, emphasis on providing high-quality general education to the Roma is needed. These challenges for Hungary are complicated by decentralization, which may lead to unequal treatment of the poor, with less financing available where social programs are most needed.
Download volume I. (external link, pdf)
Download volume II. (external link, pdf)
Researchers: Márton Medgyesi, István György Tóth
Social Impact of Globalisation in the EU (SIMGLOBE) (DG EMPL)
The SIMGLOBE study, carried out by a consortium (members: CEPS, Brussels, Bocconi University, Milano, Nottingham University, Nottingham, DIW, Berlin, an Tárki, Budapest) led by CEPS, tries to answer the question if social Europe is fit for globalization. It consists of three main parts. The first looks at the background, the facts and the figures about globalisation. The second part focuses on the social dimension, including extensive documentation of EU social conditions, together with more specific work on migration and trends in inequality. The third part then concentrates on the policy challenges. The report (commissioned by the Unit for Social and Demographic Analysis, DG Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities of the European Commission) can be downloaded directly from the DG Employment website.
open executive summary (pdf)
open full report (pdf)
Researchers: István György Tóth, Tamás Kolosi, Endre Sik, Matild Sági, Márton Medgyesi, Zoltán Fábián, András Gábos, Péter Róbert
Hungarian Household Panel Study
The Hungarian Household Panel Study was a joint research project mounted by TÁRKI, the Budapest University of Economics, the Central Statistical Office, the National Scientific Research Fund (OTKA) and several other Hungarian institutions. In the course of the project, a nationwide sample of 2,600 households was surveyed on a yearly basis between 1991 and 1997. The research focused on changes in the dynamics of the labour market, income inequalities, the life prospects of the various strata of the population, and the financial and economic strategies of households. Papers based on the survey are widely accessible in TÁRKI publications, such as the Social Report or the HHP Working Papers.
Researchers: István György Tóth, Tamás Kolosi, Endre Sik, Matild Sági, Márton Medgyesi, Zoltán Fábián, András Gábos, Péter Róbert, Anikó Bernát, Tamás Rudas
TÁRKI Household Monitor Survey (1998- biannual, ongoing)
In terms of its research topics, the Household Monitor is the continuation of the Hungarian Household Panel, without its longitudinal character. Its purpose is the quick assessment of the changes in the stratification of society and in social inequalities. The survey is primarily focussed on issues concerning the labour market and incomes, consumer attitudes, savings, economic expectations and economic behaviour, as well as changing social relations are also included among the subjects of the survey. The survey is supported by several governmental and state institutions, as well as by private institutions through research commissions.
Researchers: István György Tóth, Péter Szivós, András Gábos, Anikó Bernát, Marianna Kopasz, Márton Medgyesi
In collaboration with Applica (Brussels), TÁRKI Social Research Institute is currently carrying out a study on child poverty. The study is commissioned by the DG Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities (DG EMPL) of the European Commission VC/2008/0287. The project has only recently started and the planned duration is until December 15, 2009.
The steering committee includes István György Tóth (TÁRKI), Terry Ward (Applica), Michael Förster (OECD), Hugh Frazer (National University of Ireland), Petra Hoelscher (UNICEF), Eric Marlier (CEPS/INSTEAD) and Holly Sutherland (University of Essex). Orsolya Lelkes (European Centre for Social Welfare Policy and Research, Vienna) and Manos Matsaganis (Athens University of Economics and Business, Greece) also join the research team.
The study, which is conceived as a follow-up of the work carried out in 2007 by the Commission and the Member States and notably of the report on child poverty and child well-being prepared by the EU Task Force on child poverty and child well-being, aims at assisting the development of more coherent and integrated policies to combat child poverty and exclusion in Member States.
The project includes four main tasks. First, the report will give an in-depth empirical analysis aimed at identifying the determinants of child poverty and the key challenges in each Member State. Second, the study aims to give an overview and assessment of the relative effectiveness of existing child and family care policies in Member States to prevent and reduce child poverty and social exclusion in three areas: income support, access of parents to the labour market and access to enabling services. Third, the research wishes to identify a reduced set of indicators, which best reflect the multi-dimensional nature of child well-being. Fourth, as an ending of the project the consortium plans to hold a seminar in November 2009 in order to present and discuss the results of the previous months. As a main output of the project, a comprehensive and comparative report on child poverty and well-being will be prepared and edited.