negyzet_small (1K) Value-oriented Professionalism symbol Careful Analyses symbol Reliable Data symbol

TÁRKI projects categorised by research area

International comparative social policy

Study on the Social Protection Systems

Study on the Social Protection Systems
Study on the Social Protection Systems in the 13 Applicant Countries: Hungary Country Study (DG Employment, January 2003)
During the preparations for EU enlargement, the European Commission constantly sought to improve its knowledge of the challenges to social cohesion, and of the strategic policy responses adopted in candidate countries to tackle these challenges. An important milestone was the 2002 project to prepare for the accession states to plug into the ongoing process of exchange of good practice within the Union. With this in mind, a series of studies was conducted to describe and analyse the social protection systems in the 13 candidate countries on the basis of a common methodology, identifying the major challenges facing each in the social, economic and demographic contexts, assessing recent reform efforts, and highlighting major issues for further reform. TÁRKI prepared the Hungarian study, which covered such issues as pensions, health, poverty and social exclusion. Using a common format, the country studies described and analysed the main features of the social protection system as it was then, considering the economic, financial, social and demographic context in which the system operated.
"In the 1990s, Hungary had to manage a deep debt crisis, go through a long overdue restructuring of its industry, privatize its economy, build up the institutional background for a market economy, and create a social protection system in order to handle the social consequences of economic transition. As a result of the necessary measures taken by consecutive governments, GDP fell by almost 20 percent from its 1989 peak, in four years. Employment dropped from 5.2 million in 1990 to 3.6 million in 1996." (from the country report "Social Protection in Hungary")
Country study entitled "Social Protection in Hungary" from European Comission's site.
"The Hungarian economy has achieved strong growth since 1997, with a temporary slowdown between 2001-2003. Though the employment rate of the working-age population improved to 57% in 2003, it remains significantly below the EU average. Despite rising considerably in the recent years, the employment rate of older workers is also far below the EU average. Unemployment remained low at 5.8%, while its long-term component is still high (41.1 %). The activity rate totalled 60.6% in 2003 and remains one of the most acute problems of the Hungarian labour market. The problems of unemployment and poverty continue to have strong ethnic and regional related origins. With life expectancy at birth well below the EU average for both men and women, the health status of the population continues to remain a real concern." This is the assessment of the annual Joint Report on Social Protection and Social Inclusion that was finalised in March 2005 and focuses on social inclusion and pensions.

Study on Social Dimension in the Candidate Countries (BALKANDIDE)

Coordinator: Róbert Gál

TARKI was the lead contractor for this project. In addition to TARKI, the consortium consisted of two other institutes: the Centre for European Policy Studies (CEPS, Brussels) and the Center for Social and Economic Research (CASE, Warsaw).

BALKANDIDE examined in depth the social situation in four countries (Bulgaria, Romania, Croatia and Turkey) that were/are candidates for membership in the EU and identified the major challenges in their demographic, social and economic context that are most pertinent for determining a candidate country's capacity to function in the Union. The study assessed recent reform efforts and major current issues for further reform that will allow the candidate country to participate in the process of economic and monetary integration and to become an active and vibrant member of the Union in all aspects of civil society, political and cultural life.

The project concluded in four country reports:

and a synthesis report

The country reports covered the following areas:
  • general economic, financial and labour market developments
  • demographic trends
  • description of living conditions: key developments and dynamics
  • tax/benefit systems and policy approaches
  • government structures
  • statistical annex
The synthesis report systematically compared the candidate countries to the EU25 and, when data sources allowed, separately to the EU15 and New Member States.

Commissioned by: Employment, Social Affairs and Equal Opportunities DG
Social Protection and Social Integration
Social and Demography Analysis

Project Duration: November 2005 - November 2006

Adequacy and sustainability of old-age income maintenance (AIM) (FP6, contract no., 2004-2007)

TÁRKI is the Hungarian partner in an international group within the European Network of Economic Policy Research Institutes (ENEPRI) that is undertaking research on the Adequacy of Old-Age Income Maintenance in the EU (AIM). The project aims to develop a new approach and new methods for assessing the performance and adequacy of the pension systems, taking full account of the constraint of sustainability. The project will not delve deep into sustainability issues, but will analyse, in general terms, the methodology used to assess how well pensions can deliver adequate old-age income maintenance, given the requirement for overall sustainability of public finances. AIM is financed under the Sixth European Framework Programme for Research. It began in May 2005 and includes partners from both the old and the new EU Member States. Partners and a description of the consortium can be found at the ENEPRI site

Aging, Health Status and Determinants of Health Expenditure (AHEAD), 2004-2007

TÁRKI is Hungary's representative in the policy-oriented research Ageing, Health Status and Determinants of Health Expenditure (AHEAD). The project (which falls within the ENEPRI network) seeks to refine the existing estimates of the links between reported states of health and use of medical services. As well as looking at the effects of ageing on health care, the research considers the link between health expenditure and fertility rates, and the demands placed on health services by non-native populations. Particular attention is paid to the cost of care near death. A study will be made of the factors other than demand (such as methods of financial control) that may influence health spending. An important aspect of this research is that the work is being carried out in such a way as to provide not only the familiar projections and scenarios, but also standard deviations and confidence limits for the prediction of key variables such as healthy life expectancy and demand-driven expenditure levels.
With the general goal of 'investigating into different key factors driving health care expenditures and in particular their interaction with particular reference to ageing', the Strategic Objectives of AHEAD are:
  • An assessment of pressures on health spending in the existing EU and in selected candidate countries, looking both at those arising directly from ageing and at those affected by changing incomes, social change and methods of expenditure control.
  • The development of models embedded in EXCEL spreadsheets for projecting future health spending.
  • Estimation of confidence limits for these projections.
Country report - Hungary (written by Edit Remák, Róbert I. Gál, Renáta Németh) can be downloaded from the ENEPRI site.
Partners and consortium description:

EU8 (Maastricht Univ - World Bank) (comparative analyses of social protection systems in 8 post-socialist new member states)